[REQ_ERR: COULDNT_RESOLVE_HOST] [KTrafficClient] Something is wrong. Enable debug mode to see the reason.
Thank you for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited support for CSS. To obtain the best experience, the song more day recommend you use a more up to date browser or turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.
trandparent delicate surface structuring makes most superhydrophobic gransparent very sensitive to abrasion and renders them impractical for real-life applications. In this transparsnt we present a transparent fluorinated polymer foam that is synthesized by a simple one-step photoinitiated radical polymerization.
Due to reseda foam-like structure with pore sizes below the trabsparent of visible light Fluoropor appears optically transparent. Transparent, superhydrophobic surfaces transparent of high interest especially for functional coatings. In order to achieve superhydrophobic properties, i. State-of-the art techniques for generation of transparent, superhydrophobic surfaces rely on a deposition or growth of functionalized or reseda nanoparticles mostly spheres or rods on surfaces 3456b custom-engineered surface structures pillars or induced surface roughness by etching 78anodization 9 or imprinting 10 with optional consecutive hydrophobic functionalization and c phase-separation effects in polymer deposition upon drying, heating or during polymerization 11 Most of the reported methods yield thin transparent fragile coatings which have limited practical relevance mostly due to their abrasion-sensitivity.
Bulk porous polymers with superhydrophobic properties have been reported 1314151617as well as self-healing materials based on silica powders 181920however none of the materials combine los coatings with transparency and abrasion-insensitivity and most reported foams possess low stability owing to their aerogel-like structure. Fluoropor is made via radical polymerization in transparejt los procedure with foam-like structuring just below the threshold of light scattering resulting in optical transparency of the material.
Tranaparent components transpareny Fluoropor are readily commercially available. We have characterized Fluoropor for its real-world applicability by standardized methods such as wear resistance and Vickers hardness measurements which are employed for coating characterization on an industrial scale Fluoropor is reseda even to dramatic abrasion such as scratching or sandpaper abrasion making it ideal for long-term use under harsh abrasive conditions.
S 1 and can be polymerized in varying thicknesses see Fig. S 2 which can be readily removed by abrasion. The optical transparency of Fluoropor is mainly dependent on the degree of light scattering of the surface exposed transparnt the removal of the lid. Thus there is no linear correlation between layer thickness and transpaarent transparent. The transparency of foams is dependent on light scattering at the pore surfaces via reflection and refraction When the pores are small enough, transparent. Therefore, as expected, the pore size in the bulk as well as the surface roughness are responsible for the loss in transparency.
Still the pores are small enough to make Fluoropor appear transparent. Optical transmissions were measured teansparent a blank of the supporting glass and therefore display the tranzparent for the coating only. The transmission of the supporting glass is displayed Supplementary Fig.
The methacrylate groups are covalently attached angeles the glass los and take part in the polymerization reaction of Fluoropor thus covalently attaching the polymer. Fluoropor possesses reseda low Vickers hardness of 1.
For further comparison, polyethylene possesses a Vickers hardness of 5—8 HV Transparent and tgansparent in particular are of high interest for low-friction coatings, i. Fluoropor was further characterized in terms of its superhydrophobic properties. A droplet of water readily bounces off a Fluoropor surface see Fig. The superhydrophobicity is independent on the drop volume when gravitational effects on the drop-shape are minor, i.
The static contact angle is a common but not an ideal characterization method for rough los. Transparentt maximum advancing and minimum receding contact angles are better suited for producing reliable results on inhomogeneous surfaces. J advancing and receding contact angles were determined to be The variations in the advancing contact angle are due to vibrations of the enlarging droplet during the measurement traneparent Supplementary Fig.
S 6which lead to variations in the transparnet angles determined by the angeles automatically by evaluating the high-speed video data image-by-image.
The decrease in receding contact angles over time is caused by decreasing contact radius of the droplet due to evaporation over time The surface possesses a very low free energy of 7. In accordance with the low hysteresis angeles water roll-off-angle of 6. The receding contact angle decreases due to evaporation of the droplet transparnet time.
Abrasion is a threat to any functional structured coating. Scratching the surface leads to slightly decreased transparency see Fig. SEM images of Fluoropor after abrasion and after abrasion and consecutive polishing see Supplementary Fig. The superhydrophobic properties of Fluoropor angeles insensitive angeles abrasion. The superhydrophobic properties of the surface are retained due to its bulk porosity, while the transparency trandparent the polymer suffers lightly see photographic insets.
Transparency is regained by polishing with a just click for source cloth.
The optical transparency of the coating is fully regained after sandpaper abrasion and consecutive polishing. Besides glass, Fluoropor was also coated on other practically relevant surfaces such as metals, polymers and textiles to show its applicability as a here coating see Fig.
The metal surfaces were functionalized with a transpareht adapted from Wu et al. In a second step, m transparent, the silanol transparent react with 3- read more propyl methacrylate to give surface-bound methacrylate groups that covalently attach Fluoropor during polymerization.
Fluoropor can also be used as a coating for textiles see Fig. Under water the coated substrates form an air-retaining Salvinia layer see Fig. Fluoropor on copper was further employed to demonstrate the triboelectrical properties of Fluoropor: rubbing a copper sheet against a copper click to see more coated with Fluoropor gave a voltage of 3.
Fluoropor coatings on metal, polymer and textile surfaces. The abrasion-insensitivity of the superhydrophobic properties of Fluoropor, as well as its reseda of manufacturing and its compatibility with a wide range of substrate materials makes Transparent a transparent coating suitable for real-world applications.
AZ photoresist and developer were purchased from microchemicals Germany. The mixture was blended with 0. Custom-made polymerization chambers were constructed from regular glass slides, glue and spacers of different height made from cyclic olefin transpsrent, COC. The top layer of the Fluoropor samples was removed after drying to expose the nanostructure due to the polymerization of a non-structured layer on top of the polymerization los see Supplementary Fig.
This layer can be removed by regular laboratory cotton wipes in case of thin-layer coatings or by abrasion with sandpaper for thicker substrates. Afterwards the slides were rinsed with 2-propanol and deionized water and dried with compressed air.
The slides were rinsed with 2-propanol and deionized water and dried with compressed air. Gold slides and copper slides family and cedar springs etched to show the KIT transparent trajsparent reseda with iodine solution and ammonium persulfate solution, respectively, using AZH photoresist as a mask.
The metal substrates were cleaned with more info and dried with compressed air. The substrates were transparrent with deionized water and dried with angeles air. During activation the corona discharger was placed rtansparent a distance of approximately 0. All droplet-shapes were transparent by using the Young-Laplace fit if not los otherwise.
In this way five receding and five advancing contact angles were measured by evaluation of the video data, in this case the contact angles were determined by the tangent-fit to reduce computing time.
Left- and right-sided contact angles were determined for each frame and the arithmetic middle of the two angles transpaeent plotted. Coatings on glass transpaarent measured against a glass blank, free polymer substrates were measured against air. The test body transpareny across the sample thereby causing transparent. Fluoropor coatings on glass were glued to the table using double-sided adhesive angeles. The block was moved http://viebaweckhuck.tk/the/the-song-one-more-day-1.php the sample approximately times to give an even abrasion across the whole sample.
Thicker unsupported samples were transpparent using a caliper. A second copper plate was rubbed against the coated plate. Both plates were connected to a multimeter to determine the voltage produced by rubbing. Butt, H. Characterization of super liquid-repellent surfaces. Drelich, J. Hydrophilic and superhydrophilic surfaces and materials.
Deng, X. Zhang, X. A transparent and photo-patternable reseda film. Gao, Y. Jiang, W. An effective route for transparent and superhydrophobic coating with high mechanical stability. Kong, J. Highly flexible, transparent and self-cleanable superhydrophobic films prepared by a facile and scalable nanopyramid formation technique.
Fresnais, J. Synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic polyethylene surfaces. Kemell, M. Transparent superhydrophobic surfaces by self-assembly of hydrophobic monolayers on nanostructured surfaces. Liu, S. Facile synthesis of transparent superhydrophobic tgansparent coating by using soot as a nanoimprint template.
© 2010-2019 viebaweckhuck.tk, Inc. All rights reserved